You may be able to get Employment and Support Allowance if you have an illness or disability that affects your ability to work. If you are an employee you may be able to get Statutory Sick Pay as an alternative to Employment and Support Allowance, at least when you are first off work.
There are 2 types of Employment and Support Allowance under the legacy benefts system: contribution-based and income-related.
When you first make a claim for Employment and Support Allowance all you need to show is a medical certificate. However, after the 'assessment phase' of around 13 weeks Employment and Support Allowance is only payable if you meet the 'Work Capability Assessment' rules. Most people are asked to go to a face to face assessment to see if they meet the criteria, this may be in a local health centre or if you have particular health needs an assessor may come to your home. For more information on this criteria see Employment and Support Allowance Criteria.
A person who is assessed or treated as having limited capability for work will move on to ‘main phase’ ESA after around 13 weeks of their claim. They will get an extra component paid on top of their ESA. The amount of the extra component depends on whether you are classified as being in the ‘work related activity group’ or the ‘support’ group. Which group you are assigned to depends on the result of your Work Capability Assessment.
For more details see ESA phase or ESA component.
Your eligibility for contribution-based Employment and Support Allowance depends on if you paid enough National Insurance contributions when you were working. Your eligibility for income-related Employment and Support Allowance depends on your income and capital.
The assessment phase rate is paid for the first 13 weeks of your claim while a decision is made on your capability for work through the Work Capability Assessment.
If you made your claim for ESA before 3 April 2017 and you were placed in the Work Related Activity group you will be awarded an additional component worth £29.05 a week.
Anyone who started their claim after this date will not receive an additional component on top of the assessment rate as the work related activity component was abolished for new claimants.
This change doesn't affect:
Contributory ESA entitlement is time limited to one year for those in the Work-related Activity group.
If after the Work Capability Assessment you are placed in the Support group you will be awarded an additional component worth £38.55 a week.
Contributory ESA entitlement is not time limited for those in the Support group.
More details on how the process for claiming and assessing Employment and Support Allowance are available on the GOV.UK website. You can make a claim for Employment and Support Allowance by phoning 0800 055 6688 (or 0800 023 4888 if you have a speech or hearing impairment).
If you live in Northern Ireland more details are available on the NI Direct website. You can make a claim for Employment and Support Allowance by phoning 0800 085 6318 (or 08003283419 if you have a speech or hearing impairment).
You will not be paid for the first 7 days of your claim, these are called waiting days.
When you claim Employment and Support Allowance you can pay for bills and debt directly from your benefit. This is called a Third Party Deduction, to find out more about this see Third Party Deductions.